The Island of Governors is an island of 172 acres (70 hectares) in New York Harbor, about 800 yards (732 m) from the southern tip of Manhattan Island and separated from Brooklyn by the Buttermilk Channel, about 400 yards (366 m). It is part of the Manhattan area of ââNew York City. The National Park Service manages a small fraction of the north of the island as the National Monument of the Governor of the Islands, while the Trust for Governors Island operates the remaining 150 hectares, including 52 historic buildings. Today, Governors Island is a popular seasonal destination open to the public between May and September with a 43 hectare public park completed between 2012 and 2016, free art and cultural events, and recreational activities. The island is accessed by ferries from Brooklyn and Manhattan.
The Lenape of the Manhattan region is called the island as Paggank ("nut island"), possibly after the hickory islands, oaks, and chestnut trees abound; The Dutch explorer Adriaen Block called it the Noten Eylant Translation, and it was borrowed into English as Nutten Island. The name of the island today, made official in 1784, originated in the British colonial era, when the colonial council ordered the island for the exclusive use of the governor of the New York empire.
In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), the troops of the Continental Army raised the defensive works on the island, which they used to shoot British ships before they were taken. From 1783 to 1966, the island was the United States Army post, and then from 1966 to 1996, it served as the premier Coast Guard installation in the United States. Around 103 acres (42Ã, ha) of the fill was added to the island in 1912, making the island an area of ââ172 acres (70 ha).
Video Governors Island
In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano saw an island called Paggank , becoming the first recorded European. (Peanut Island; described above) by Native Americans.
In May 1624 Noten Eylandt ("Pulau Nuts", officially renamed Governors Island in 1784) was the first settler landing site in New Netherland. They arrived from the Republic of the Netherlands on a New Dutch ship under the command of Cornelius Jacobsen May, who descended on the island with thirty families to take over the New Netherlands territory. Thus, the Senate and the New York State Assembly recognize Governor Island as the birthplace of New York state, and also authorize the island as a place of "legal-political guarantee of the North American continent" to take place.
In 1633, New Netherland's fifth director, Wouter van Twiller, arrived with a 104-person regiment on the Governors Island - the first use as a military base. Then he operated a farm on the island. He secured his field by drafting a deed on 16 June 1637, signed by two Lenape, Cacapeteyno and Pewihas, on behalf of their community in Keshaechquereren, located in what is now New Jersey.
The new Netherlands was conditionally handed over to England in 1664, and England renamed the New York settlement in June 1665. In 1674, Britain had full control over the island.
After the start of the American Revolutionary War, in one night, April 9, 1776, the Israeli Army Continental General Putnam fortified the island with earthwork and 40 cannons in anticipation of the return of the British Army and navy who had left New York City this year before. The port's defense on the island continued to increase during the summer, and on July 12, 1776, involving HMS Phoenix and HMS Rose as they ran across the Hudson River. to Tappan Zee. The colonizers created considerable damage to make British commanders careful to enter the East River, which later contributed to the success of George Washington's retreat from Brooklyn to Manhattan after the Battle of Long Island (also known as the Battle of Brooklyn), the British Army's attempt to taking Brooklyn Heights overlooking Manhattan and the biggest battle of the entire war.
Continental Army troops collapsed after being flanked and eventually retreated from Brooklyn and from the Governor of the Island as well, and England occupied it at the end of August. From September 2 to 14 September, the new British garrison will volley with Washington's weapons on batteries in front of Fort George in Manhattan. The castle, together with the rest of New York City, was held by the British for the remainder of the war until the Evacuation Day at the end of the war of 1783.
End of the 18th century to 19
At the end of the Revolution, the island, as a former Crown possession, belongs to the state of New York and does not see military use. Prompted by the unresolved international situation between the forces of the French and British wars and the need for a more substantial hill fortress, the work of the Revolutionary War era land was rehabilitated into a port defense by the city and state of New York.
Noten (in pidgin, "Nutten") Island was renamed Governors Island in 1784 because the island, in ancient times, had been supplied by British colonists for the exclusive use of the governor of New York. The Governor's house (probably ca 1703, in addition) survives as the island's oldest structure.
In the late 1790s, Quasi-War with France pushed the port city fortification program and the state of New York started improvements as a credit to its Revolutionary War debts. In February 1800, the island was presented to the federal government, which undertook the reconstruction of Fort Jay and the new construction of two waterfront batteries, Castle Williams and South or Half Moon Battery.
Two fortresses built. The first, Fort Jay, was built in 1794 by the state of New York at the site of the early Revolutionary War occupation, and was originally a rectangular fortress made of earth and wood. A sandstone house and brick house topped by a date statue of an eagle at that time and is the oldest structure on the island. From 1806 to 1809, Fort Jay, later renamed Fort Columbus was reconstructed with larger bricks and granite with ravelin addition in the north of his face, giving this castle a present five-star appearance, to better protect the castle from Manhattan-based Attacks and more directly putting a cannon shot into the East River and Hudson. The second great fortress, Castle Williams, is based on design by Colonel Jonathan Williams; The construction began in 1807 and was substantially completed in November 1811. Located on a rocky hill that stretches from the northwest corner of the island, it is inspired by modern French thought on the castle, but a pioneering design for American forts. It was designed as a circular structure that could project a 320-degree arc arc from three levels of casemates and a roof, holding 103 cannons.
Fort Jay and Castle Williams are regarded as one of the best examples of the First System (Fort Jay) and Second System (Castle Williams) American coastal strongholds. They proved useful as soon as they were finished, as they were used to defend the city in the War of 1812. However, within two decades, their ancient defenses and use of the castle needed to be downsized. Therefore, parts of Governors Island are changed for civilian use. However, the Army still maintained military operations, with the "administrative and training center" on the island and a funeral station during the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War; In addition, there are arsenal music schools and military schools located on the island.
During the American Civil War, Castle Williams held Confederate war prisoners and Fort Jay arrested the captured Confederate officers. After the war, Castle Williams was used as a military fortress and became an east coast partner for military prisons in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and Alcatraz Island, California. In 1878, military installations on the island, later known collectively as Fort Columbus, became the main administrative center of the Army. Family of army officers began to move in, and resources, such as cinema, YMCA, "officer club", public school, and three chapels, were built. In 1885, the first incinerator in the US was built on Governors Island.
Using materials unearthed from the first New York City subway line (IRT Lexington Avenue Line under Lexington Avenue), the Army Corps of Engineers oversaw the storage of 4,787,000 cubic meters (3,660,000 m 3 ) from the side contents south of Governors Island, adding 103 acres (42Ã, ha) of flat, treeless soil in 1912 and bringing the total area of ââthe island to 172.
In 1912, the administrative leaders of the island included General Tasker H. Bliss, who would become Army Chief of Staff in 1917. In 1939, the island became the headquarters of the First US Army. During this period, the army's culture on the island grew.
The Brooklyn-Battery tunnel passes underwater and offshore from the northeast corner of the island, its location is marked by a ventilation building connected to the island by a causeway. At one point before World War II, Robert Moses proposed a bridge across the harbor, with a base located on the Island of Governor. War Department Intervention canceled the plan, calling it a navigation threat to the Brooklyn Navy Yard.
Prior to the construction of Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, the island was considered a site for the city's airport, and it held a small grass strip, the Governors Island Army Airfield, from the 1950s to the 1960s.
After a year-long study by the Department of Defense to cut costs and reduce the number of military installations, the Army announced in November 1964 that Fort Jay and the Brooklyn Navy Yard would close in 1966.
Coast Guard era
When the Army left Governors Island in 1966, the installation became the headquarters of the Coast Guard of the United States. The Coast Guard sees the island as an opportunity to consolidate and provide more facilities for its schools, and as a base for its Atlantic and regional Atlantic operations. This is the largest installation of the Coast Guard, and for them as the Army, serves both as an independent housing community, with an island population of about 3,500, and as a base of operations for the Atlantic Area Command, its three District Command, Maintenance and Logistics Command, transferred from New York's Coast Guard Station in New London, Connecticut, and the local office of the Port of New York Captain.
It is also a base for some US Coast Guard cutters including USCGC Dallas (WHEC-716), USCGC Gallatin (WHEC-721), USCGC Morgenthau < (WHEC-722), USCGC Tamaroa (WMEC-166) and USCGC Sorrel (WLB-296).
Within thirty years of occupation on the island, Coast Guard started a long and slow process of improving facilities and infrastructure that have been slightly improved since the 1930s. This effort also encouraged the recognition of the island's military heritage by owning 92 acres (370,000 m 2 ) recognized as the National Historic Landmark on February 4, 1985, recognizing the widespread range and representation of the Army fort, administrative architecture and residential dating from the early days of the nation.
During this time, Governors Island has been the backdrop for a number of historic events. In 1986, the island was the place to revive the newly renewed Statue of Liberty by President Ronald Reagan. On December 8, 1988, along with Vice President and President-elect George W. Bush, President Ronald Reagan held his last meeting as president with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at Commander's headquarters. In July 1993, the United Nations sponsors talks at the South Battery Officer's Club to help restore democratic governance in Haiti resulting in the Approval of the Governor of the Islands, signed between Haitian political leaders.
Like the Army 30 years earlier, the US Transportation Department, which was the mother of the Coast Guard, was forced to cut costs as another federal agent in the early 1990s. Due to the high cost of operations and remote locations of most of its activities in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, the Provincial Governor's bases were identified for closure in 1995. This closure is an institutional initiative and is not part of the Basic Assessment and Closing Commission (BRAC) process that impacts many Department installations Defense at that time.
In September 1996, Coast Guard has moved all the functions and housing personnel to offices and bases in Rhode Island and Virginia. The Coast Guard left a temporary detachment to keep the island together with the General Services Administration (GSA) while its future was determined. With the departure of Coast Guard, nearly two centuries the island's use as a federal military reservation ended. The disposal of the island as an excessive federal property is outlined in the Budget Reduction Act of 1996. The law sets a deadline and directs that the island was sold at a fair market value by the GSA in 2002, but gives the city and state of New York the right of rejection first, the provisions put in law by New York senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan who envisioned the island with great potential as a public and civil resource.
Redevelopment and subsequent use
With the announcement of the closure and departure of Coast Guard Guards, city and state officials along with private developers and civil planners began offering opinions and ideas about the island's future which includes housing, parks, education and personal development.
In 1996, the Van Alen Institute organized an idea competition called "Public Property" which called on designers "to consider the urban potential of the Governors Island in terms of spatial proximity and overlapping experiences between actions, actors, events and ecology... to recognize the physical realities of cities and the complexity of their historical programs as the basis for the survival of an important public sphere. "The competition is open to anyone who is registered. More than 200 entries from students, lecturers, and landscape architects in 14 different countries are accepted. The jury members included: Andrea Kahn, Christine Boyer, Miriam Gusevich, Judith Henitz, Carlos Jimenez, and Enric Miralles.
The proposal to adaptively reuse Castle Williams for the New Globe Theater was designed by architect Norman Foster. The nonprofit organization works in partnership with the Shakespeare Globe Theater in London to develop proposals and seek support for the cultural center and show space at the Castle. With the completion of the National Park Service's general management plan for Castle Williams and Fort Jay in 2009, it was determined that the proposed use of Castle for the theater was not aligned with its historical significance.
In the last-minute action while in office, President Bill Clinton assigned 22 hectares of islands, including two large forts, as the National Monument of the Governor of the Islands on January 19, 2001. The following year on April 1, 2002, President George W Bush, Governor Pataki and Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced that the federal government would sell Governor Island to the people of New York at a nominal cost, and that the island would be used for public purposes. At the time of the transfer, a limitation of the deed was made that prohibited permanent homes and casinos on the island. On 31 January 2003, 150 hectares of Governor Island were transferred to New York society, to be managed by a joint state-city agency, Governors Island Preservation and Education Corporation (GIPEC). The remaining 22 hectares are legally reaffirmed by the president's proclamation on February 7, 2003 as the Governor's Island National Monument, to be managed by the National Park Service.
On January 19, 2001, Fort Jay and Castle Williams, two of the three historic forts on the island, were declared National Monuments. On January 31, 2003, 150 hectares (61 hectares) of the island were transferred to New York State and City for $ 1. The remaining 22 acres (9 ha) was transferred to the US Department of State as the Governor of the Islands National Monument, which was managed by the National Park Service. The 150-hectare portion of the island that is not included in the National Monument is administered by The Trust for Governors Island, an entity from New York City and the successor of a shared/state city that forms the rebuilding body, Preservation of Governor Island and Corporate Education. The move included a deed restriction prohibiting a permanent home or casino on the island.
On February 15, 2006, Governor George Pataki and Mayor Michael Bloomberg called for "visionary ideas to rebuild and preserve Governors Island" to be submitted to Governors Island Preservation and Education Corporation (GIPEC). The announcement said the proposal should "improve New York's position as a center of culture, business, education and innovation," including public parks, contributing to the vitality of harbors and stress "sustainable environmental development." Deputy Mayor Dan Doctoroff said any group or agency selected to develop the island would bear the $ 12 million annual maintenance fee now shared between the city and state. In early 2007, GIPEC paused to search for developers, focusing on developing the island's main park as it was mentioned in the deed that delivered the island from the federal government to the city and state of New York.
Initial development and construction efforts
In 2007, the Governors Island Preservation and Education Corporation announced five design teams of selected finalists to convey their ideas for the future park and Great Promenade; GIPEC has granted the lease to its first two tenants a year earlier. Corporations appoint West 8, Diller Scofidio Renfro, Rogers Marvel Architects, Quennell Rothschild & amp; Partners, and SMWM to design a development plan for Governor Island. The plan includes 87 hectares (35 acres) of open space on the island, and is provided for the restoration of historic districts and new parks in the southern part of the island. Every company prompted their vision for a new park. The Dutch landscape architecture firm, West 8's proposal featured dramatic topography "in concert with winding roads and trees to create 'hide and reveal' sights, photographing the park experience." The company also proposed free bike rentals around the island; and, as the island is windy, designs the proposed topography to provide a moment of protection. With transportation to and from the island, one idea considered is the air gondola system designed by Santiago Calatrava.
There are several tenants on the island. Less than 1,000 workers, artists, and students work or live on the island. However, in 2009, 3-acre commercial organic farming (12,000 m 2 ), operated by a non-profit organization, Value Added, was launched. In 2010, the Urban Assembly of New York Harbor School, a small public high school in Bushwick, Brooklyn, was relocated to the Island, overhauling the former Coast Guard clinic in the 555 Building. Also that year, the artist's studio was run by the Lower Manhattan Culture Council and placed in section 110 opened, and New York University announced an expansion plan that includes campuses on the island, "complete with dormitories and faculty housing."
In April 2010, the city signed an agreement to take full control of the island's development from New York state through a new Trust to the Governor of the Island, and launched a new master plan. Under the plan, the historic north end will remain unchanged structurally. The center of the island will be developed into a park that extends to the southern end. Areas on the east and west sides of the island will be developed privately to generate income, and the whole island will be overgrown by a circular road. The 40-acre (160,000m 2 ) park, designed by Adriaan Geuze from the Dutch landscape architecture firm West 8 will feature a play field, forest and hills built from unused 20th-century debris carved buildings to frame the scenery of the Statue of Liberty and other New York landmarks. The southern end of the park will meet water in a series of wetlands.
In November 2011, the Urban Real Estate Center (CURE) at Columbia University proposed a fantastic idea using content to connect Manhattan physically to Governor Island. CURE proposed a "92-acre national historic area on the island, 3.9 million square feet for public buildings such as schools and 270 acres of open spaces" in their plans. This proposal, called LoLo, will require 23 million cubic meters of landfill and allow new construction of up to 88 million square feet, while providing new subway stations of the 1st and 6th extension trains and bridges to Red Hook, Brooklyn. The proposed landfill bridge will also serve as a storm surge barrier.
On May 24, 2012, Mayor Michael Bloomberg broke ground in a new park and public space designed by West 8 landscape architectural firm, along with announcing the reopened opening of Castle Williams.
The ten-year government capital plan of Bloomberg has provided funding for the first phase of construction, which begins in the summer of 2012. As part of phase 1 of the master plan:
- Soissons Landing was upgraded to improve access to the island. The ferry dock is rehabilitated, the old ferry waiting room is demolished and the new entry plaza is completed in 2013.
- The Ground Parade will be reassessed for grass sports.
- The Historic District will have garden facilities.
- Drinkable new water connections will be established and sea walls will be repaired. There has been no water since the island moved into city ownership in 2003, and the local illegal connection from Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel was cut off. Both projects throughout the year begin in 2013.
- As part of the South Island park, Liggett Terrace, a 6-hectare (2.4Ã, ha) yard with seasonal planting near Liggett Hall, will be added, such as Hammock Grove, a new shaded area, wood containing beds hanging for visitors and Play Lawn will have 2 new baseball fields. Work began in 2012 with the demolition of military housing complexes of the 1960s and 1970s, and when both opened in late 2013, they were completed in early 2014.
- Parking spaces and roads around the historic fort, South Battery, converted into grass in 2013.
- 33 other acres (13 ha) in the area may be re-broadcast for commercial use, including hotels.
On June 6, 2015, the Oyster Pavilion will open. The 10-hectare (4.0-hectare) hill section of the park is the last part of the newly rebuilt island to be opened. The Hills opened on July 21, 2016, and consists of four hills with an altitude of 26 to 70 feet (7.9 to 21.3 m), including a hill containing four long slides.
Friends of the Island Governor
Since the decision by the Coast Guard to vacate the 172 acre (0.70 km 2 ) island in 1995, the Governor Island Alliance and its 50 members led a campaign to return the island to New York. for public use. Since 2014, the Alliance has become an independent non-profit organization. By 2016 its name is changed to Friends of Governors Island . The Friends run volunteer and membership programs, raise money and advocate for the island.
Maps Governors Island
From its diversion in 2003 to 2015, Governors Island is open to the public on weekends during the summer. Now the island can be visited seven days a week from May 1st to October 31st.
Starting in 2010, the weekend ferry service begins between Governors Island and Brooklyn Bridge Park's Pier 6 on Atlantic Avenue. On the island, passengers depart and arrive at Yankee Pier. A Friday-only summer round serves the Governors Island, Manhattan, Atlantic Avenue, and Brooklyn Bridge Park.
In June 2011, NY Waterway began serving dots along the East River. On May 1, 2017, the route became part of the NYC East River Ferry route, which runs between Pier 11/Wall Street in Manhattan Financial District and East 34th Street Ferry Landing in Murray Hill, Manhattan, with five intermediate stops in Brooklyn and Ratu. During the summer weekend, Governors Island is a mid-term stop on the route between Pier 11 and Fulton Ferry.
Access from Manhattan is from the Battery Maritime Building in the Financial District. The 1908 cast iron structure, located beside the Ferry terminal of Staten Island, was restored between 2001-2006. Half-hour service. The departure and arrival jetty on Governor Island is the Soissons Pier on the northern tip of the island. The journey is about 7 minutes. The ferry is only accessible during the late spring and summer.
Activities on the island include a free National Park Walking Tour, cycling, picnics, art installations, fairs, drone racing, festivals and concerts. Bicycle, tandem and quadcycle rentals are provided on the island by Bike and Roll at hourly and daily rates. New York Water Taxi operates an artificial beach at the northern end of the island. The island is divided in two by a road called the Division Road. Half of the northeast is currently open to the public. The southwestern half, which contains abandoned residential areas and US Coast Guard services, is still under construction and some parts remain closed to the public. However, three parts of the park open: the southern tip of the Picnic Point, the center of Hammock Grove in 2014, and The Hills on the southwest corner in 2016. The circular drive of the island along the coast is also open to the public. The destruction of US Coast Guard housing starts in 2008. This is the basis of the former Liberty Village residential area used by coast guard families between 1988 and 1996. There are still buildings and barracks of coast guards, not of historical significance, in undeveloped territory.
The Governors Island Art Fair has been taking place every year on the island over the weekend in September since 2007. Originally located in the buildings at Colonel's Row, the event has grown to include Castle Williams and Fort Jay as the artist venue. The 2015 season saw an expansion in the number and variety of exhibits, held in quarters of former officers and other buildings, some refurbished, some not.
"World Trade Center Run to Remember" has been held annually on the island since 2009 on the first Sunday of September. These activities include 5K Run, 3K Family Fun Run/Walk, Fun Run Kids, and other activities to benefit organizations associated with related services 9/11.
Famous peopleThe Smothers Brothers were both born on Governors Island, where their father, Thomas B. Smothers, a US Army officer, was placed
- List of prisons and Civil War camps
- List of National Historic Landmarks in New York City
- List of Historic Places of Historic Places in Manhattan on the Islands
- This article incorporates public domain material from the National Park Service document "The Governor's National Monument".
- Boggs, Kenneth L. Sentinel Island; Brief history of Governors Island, Fort Jay, 1637-1950 . Published 1950
- Guide to the Governor of the Island . Edited by the Coast Guard of the United States (1973)
- Buttenwieser, Ann L. Governor Island: The Gem of New York Harbor. Syracuse University Press, 2009. ISBNÃ, 978-0-8156-0936-0
- Smith, Edmund Banks. Governor Island, military history under three flags, 1637-1922 Publishers: New York's Valentine's Guide, 1923
- Cultural Landscape Report for the Governor of the Island National Monument by Liza Novak. National Park Service, Boston, Massasuchetts 2010
- Trust for Governors Island website
- Website of the Governor's National Monument
- Visitor Information Governors Island
- Governor's Alliance
- Governors Island Art Fair
- Biking on Governor Island
- Cultural Landscape Report for the Governor of the National Monument Island
- Governors Island, Lifeblood of American Liberty (34 slides)
- National Historic Landmark Information
- Military Island Governor Brats - a site created by some grew up on the island
- Enlargement And Reconstruction Of The Military Post Of The Governor Of The Island
- Photos of the Governor's Island
Source of the article : Wikipedia